March 23 – Saint Turibius of Mogrovejo, Bishop – Optional Memorial

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Optional Memorial: Liturgical Color: White

Today’s saint was the second Archbishop of the second most important city in Spain’s Latin American empire in the 1500’s. Lima, Peru, stood only behind Mexico City in importance to the Spanish Crown during the pinnacle of its colonial ambitions. So when Lima’s first Archbishop died, the King of Spain, not the Pope, searched for a suitable candidate to send over sea and land to replace him. The King found his man close at hand, and he was more than suitable to the task. Turibius of Mongrovejo was a learned scholar of the law who held teaching and other posts in Spain’s complex of Church and civil courts. Yet for all his learning, piety, faith, and energy, there was one huge obstacle to him being a bishop. Turibius was not a priest. He was not even a deacon. He was a very good, albeit unmarried, layman. The arrangement for centuries between Spain and the Holy See was that the Spanish Crown chose bishops while the Pope approved, or rejected, them. So after the Pope approved the appointment, over the candidate’s fierce objections, Turibius received the four minor orders on four successive weeks, was ordained a deacon and then a priest. He said his first Mass when he was over 40 years old. About two years later, Turibius was ordained a bishop and then sailed the ocean blue, arriving in Lima in 1581.

Archbishop Turibius was extraordinarily dedicated to his episcopal responsibilities. He exhausted himself on years long visits to the parishes of his vast territory, which included present day Peru and beyond. He acquainted himself with the priests and people under his care. He convoked synods (large Church meetings) to standardize sacramental, pastoral, and liturgical practice. He produced a multi lingual catechism in Spanish and two native dialects, and even learned a few indigenous dialects himself. Archbishop Turibius’ life also providentially intersected with the lives of other saints active in Peru at the same time, including St. Martin de Porres, St. Francisco Solano, and Isabel Flores de Oliva, to whom Turibius gave the name Rose when he confirmed her. She was later canonized as St. Rose of Lima, the first saint born in the New World.

Archbishop Turibius was a fine example of a counter reformation bishop, except that he did not serve in a counter reformation place. That is, Peru was not split by the Catholic versus Protestant theological divisions wreaking such havoc in Europe in that era. St. Turibius implemented the reforms of the Council of Trent not to combat heretics, but to simply make the Church healthier and holier, Protestants or no Protestants. From this perspective, the reforms of Trent were not a cure but an antidote. If Turibius’ energy and holiness were motivated by any one thing besides evangelical fervor, it was his desire to make the Spanish colonists of Peru recover the integrity of their own baptisms. The indigenous population needed authentic examples of Christian living to respect and emulate, and few Spanish colonialists provided such models of right living. St. Turibius’ greatest enemy, then, was simply original sin, which returns to the battlefield every time a baby is born.

After exhausting himself through total dedication to his responsibilities, St. Turibius fell ill on the road and died at age 67 in a small town far from home. He was canonized in 1726 and named the patron saint of Latin American Bishops by Pope St. John Paul II in 1983. Perhaps his unforeseen ordination explains his sustained fervor and drive. What came late was valued for having come at all. He bloomed late and bloomed beautifully. If a visitor searches for the tomb of the saintly Archbishop in the Cathedral of Lima today, he will not find it. There are only fragments of bones in a reliquary. His reputation for holiness was immediate and his relics were distributed far and wide after his death. He is in death as widely shared as he was in life, all the faithful wanting just a piece of the great man. In January 2018 Pope Francis prayed at the relics of St. Turibius and invoked his memory in a talk to Peru’s Bishops. St. Turibius did not, Pope Francis said, shepherd his diocese from behind a desk, but was a “a bishop with shoes worn out by walking, by constant travel, by setting out to preach the Gospel to all: to all places, on all occasions, without hesitation, reluctance, and fear.”

St. Turibius, we invoke your intercession to inspire all who share the gospel, in whatever form, to do so with ardour, skill, and charity, using all the means at their disposal, as you so powerfully did in your own life and ministry.

Further Reading:


New Advent

Catholic Online

Franciscan Media


All Saints for the Liturgical Year

From Butler’s Lives of the Saints:

TURRIBIUS ALPHONSUS MOGROBEJO, whose feast the Church honors on April 27th, was born on the 6th of November, 1538, at Mayorga in the kingdom of Leon in Spain. Brought up in a pious family where devotion was hereditary, his youth was a model to all who knew him. All his leisure was given to devotion or to works of charity. His austerities were great, and he frequently made long pilgrimages on foot. The fame of Turribius as a master of canon and civil law soon reached the ears of King Philip II., who made him judge at Granada. About that time the see of Lima, in Peru, fell vacant, and among those proposed Philip found no one who seemed better endowed than our Saint with all the qualities that were required at that city, where much was to be done for religion. He sent to Rome the name of the holy judge, and the Sovereign Pontiff confirmed his choice. Turribius in vain sought to avoid the honor. The Pope, in reply, directed him to prepare to receive Holy Orders and be consecrated. Yielding at last by direction of his confessor, he was ordained priest and consecrated. He arrived at Lima in 1587, and entered on his duties. All was soon edification and order in his episcopal city. A model of all virtue himself, he confessed daily and prepared for Mass by long meditation. St. Turribius then began a visitation of his vast diocese, which he traversed three times, his first visitation lasting seven years and his second four. He held provincial councils, framing decrees of such wisdom that his regulations were adopted in many countries. Almost his entire revenues were bestowed on his creditors, as he styled the poor. While discharging with zeal his duties he was seized with a fatal illness during his third visitation, and died on the 23d of March, 1666, at Santa, exclaiming, as he received the sacred Viaticum: “I rejoiced in the things that were said to me: ‘We shall go into the house of the Lord.'”

The proofs of his holy life and of the favors granted through his intercession induced Pope Innocent XI. to beatify him, and he was canonized by Pope Benedict XIII. in the year 1726.

Lives of the Saints, by Alban Butler, Benziger Bros. ed. [1894]